Stars exploding as supernovae lose their mass to companion stars during their lives — ScienceDaily

Stars over eight times more massive than the Sun end their lives in supernovae explosions. The composition of the star influences what happens during the explosion. A considerable number of massive stars have a close companion star. Led by researchers at Kyoto University, a team of international researchers observed that some stars exploding as supernovae…

Physicists have discovered surprisingly complex states emerging out of simple synchronized networks — ScienceDaily

Fireflies, heart cells, clocks, and power grids all do it — they can spontaneously sync up, sending signals out in unison. For centuries, scientists have been perplexed by this self-organizing behavior, coming up with theories and experiments that make up the science of sync. But despite progress being made in the field, mysteries still persist…

Documenting a trophic cascade with leopards, antelopes, and plants — ScienceDaily

A team of Princeton ecologists took advantage of a rare opportunity to study what happens to an ecosystem when large carnivores are wiped out. “Large carnivores play a critical, and disproportionate, role in their ecosystems, and their populations are declining worldwide,” said Justine Atkins, a graduate student in ecology and evolutionary biology at Princeton. “However,…

Crystal-clear view of a key neuronal receptor opens door for new, targeted drugs — ScienceDaily

During brain development, billions of neuron nerve cells must find their accurate pathway in the brain in order to form trillions of neuronal circuits enabling us to enjoy cognitive, sensory and emotional wellbeing. To achieve this remarkable precision, migrating neurons use special protein receptors that sense the environment around them and guide the way so…

New research lays foundation for upcoming clinical trial for patients with epidermolysis bullosa — ScienceDaily

Children with the severe skin disease, recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), also known as butterfly disease, often develop an aggressive and fatal skin cancer by early adulthood. Now an international team of scientists have identified a potential drug treatment for the lethal complication. The discovery paves the way for a clinical trial set to begin…

How well do vaccines work? Research reveals measles vaccine efficacy — ScienceDaily

The recent measles outbreaks across the country emphasize the importance of vaccinations. “For many infectious diseases, we rely on herd immunity to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable infections. Herd immunity is the protection of the ‘herd,’ our population, by preventing infections in the vast majority people,” said Kate Langwig, an infectious disease ecologist at Virginia Tech.…

Human impact reduces the behavioral repertoire of chimpanzees — ScienceDaily

Chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally high levels of behavioral diversity compared to all other non-human species. This diversity has been documented in a variety of contexts, including the extraction of food resources, communication and thermoregulation. Many of these behaviors are assumed to be socially learned and group-specific, supporting the existence of chimpanzee cultures. As all other great…

Cytomegalovirus infection broadens spectrum of environmental allergens — ScienceDaily

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can convert a harmless, inhaled protein antigen into an allergen, according to a study published March 7 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Rafaela Holtappels from the University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, and colleagues. According to the authors, the findings suggest that CMV airway infection significantly enlarges the…